Immanuel Kant's thesis is an exploration of the limits of human reason Kant believed that reason could not be used to access knowledge of the world, but could be used to ground our moral responsibilities, and discover the rules of logic and mathematics. He sought to provide a philosophical framework for understanding the nature of morality and the role of reason.
Kant's thesis is best understood in the context of his three Critiques: the Critique of Pure Reason, the Critique of Practical Reason, and the Critique of Judgment. The first Critique, the Critique of Pure Reason, is Kant's best-known work and sets out his views on the limits of human reason and the ability of the human mind to access knowledge through the use of concepts, principles, and judgments. The second Critique, the Critique of Practical Reason, argues for the existence of morality, and provides a moral framework for understanding the world and making moral judgments. The third Critique, the Critique of Judgment, is Kant's action-oriented work, and it outlines how reason and human will should be used to shape human behavior.
Kant's thesis can be seen in five of his works:
1. The Critique of Pure Reason (1781): Here Kant sets out his views on the limits of human reason and the ability of the human mind to access knowledge through the use of concepts, principles, and judgments. He argues that our knowledge is limited to what can be known through the use of the senses and our ability to connect concepts.
2. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786): In this work, Kant argued that the natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry, should be based on the principles of reason and that the laws of nature should be seen as necessary and universal.
3. Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785): In this work, Kant outlines his morality based on the concept of the Categorical Imperative. He argues that moral obligations arise from the recognition of an absolute, universal law that holds for all people, regardless of their individual desires or beliefs.
4. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783): In this work, Kant argues for the existence of an a priori knowledge that is independent of experience. He argues that the existence of this knowledge is necessary to explain the basic principles of logic, mathematics, and metaphysics.
5. Critique of Judgment (1790): In this work, Kant proposes that our ability to reason and judge can be used to shape behavior. He argues that our ability to reason must be guided by moral principles, such as the Categorical Imperative, in order to arrive at sound judgements about the world.
Kant's thesis is a complex body of work, and it is often contested by other philosophers. Nevertheless, Kant's thesis is still seen as one of the most influential works of philosophy in the Western tradition. Kant's thesis has been used to provide a philosophical basis for understanding morality, the limits of human reason, and the use of reason to shape behavior.